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虚拟条件句中if的隐含或省略

时间: 10-18     手机版

语言是灵活多变的,表达是丰富多彩的。有的时候虚拟语气的表现形式也显得非常灵活,比如就说其中的虚拟条件吧——它有时会以if从句来表示,但有时会用某种短语来表示,比如不定式短语、分词短语、介词短语等等。

1. if 的隐含

I should be happy to go with you. 如果能与你一起去,我将很高兴。

句中的不定式短语to go with you就是表示虚拟条件的,它相当于if I could go with you。这句话的言外之意是:可惜我不一定有机会同你一起去。

To have studied harder, you would have passed the examination. 你学习更用功些,你早就考及格了。

句中的不定式短语to have studied harder也是表示虚拟条件的,它相当于if you had studied harder。句子的言外之意是:可惜你当时没有更用功我,所以你就没有考及格。

Failing this time, what would you do?假若这次失败,那你怎么办?

句中的分词短语failing this time表示虚拟条件,相当于if you failed this time。其言外之意是:尽管失败的可能性很小,但还是有可能会失败,假若失败了,那怎么办?

Without your help, we couldn’t have succeeded. 如果没有你的帮助,我们就不会取得成功。

句中的介词短语without your help表示虚拟条件,相当于if you hadn’t given us help。其言外之意是:好在你帮助了我们,所以我们取得了成功。

I didn’t know that he was a cheat, or else I wouldn’t have believed him. 我不知道他是个骗子,不然我也不会相信他了。

句中的or else隐含着一个虚拟条件,它相当于if I had known he was a cheat。句子的言外之意是:当是我竟然相信了他。

2. if 的省略

在虚拟条件句中,有时可将引民虚拟条件句的连词if省略,但此时应用倒装句型,即将从句中的were, should, had 等提到句首。如:

如果她在这里,她也同意的。

If he were here, she would agree too.

→Were she here, she would agree too.

假若明天下雨,我们只好推迟这场比赛。

If it should rain tomorrow, we should have to put off the match.

→Should it rain tomorrow, we should have to put off the match.

要是我们当时早点找到他的话,我们就可以救活他。

If we had found him earlier we could have saved his life.

→Had we found him earlier we could have saved his life.

注意,如果条件从句的谓语为否定式,其中的否定词not应置于主语之后,而不能与were, should, had 等缩略成Weren’t, Shouldn’t, Hadn’t而置于句首。

我如不是警告了你,你就可能丧命了。

正:If I hadn’t warned you, you could have been killed.

正:Had I not warned you, you could have been killed.

误:Hadn’t I warned you, you could have been killed.

另外,有时省略if后提前到句首的had可能不是助动词,而是实义动词。如:

Had I time, I would go with you. 假如我有时间,我就同你们一起去。

句中的had不是构成过去完成时的助动词,而是表示“有”,如果不省略if,其完整形式为:If I had time, I would go with you.

 

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